how to ensure that the gods will do what mankind wants and needs
ethical in nature
Chinese traditions: Confucianism, Daoism and Buddhism, were ultimately concerned with the perfectibility of humankind
the ideal person
one who conquers his own desires to become someone who serves other people.
human beings must align their actions with this natural force, this Dao
the book called the Yi Jing (I Ching
ministers who were trained in ethics and that they themselves adopt an ethical approach to solving problems, an approach which considered the welfare of the people as its greatest value
basic ideas of Confucianism
everything in life is relational
no absolutes in Confucian ideas.
first value is compassion for all involved in a given situation.
The second is righteousness and justice for everyone involved in a situation
third is propriety, what is the proper way to act while maintaining the relationships in which one is involved
fourth is loyalty: how to act in this situation while supporting all one’s possible conflicting loyalties.
fifth is to act with filial piety, considering the welfare of one’s parents, and by extension, one’s family, and one’s country, not one’s own wishes
sixth is honesty and truthfulness.
stresses letting nature take its course, following the natural way
illustrate the virtue of non-contention
in Daoist thought, the feminine always triumphs
using weakness to overcome strength
In all Daoist activities, ritual was essential as a primary means of dealing with transition periods, such as birth and death. Implements were used in these rituals, including incense burners which carried messages to the gods in Heaven through the smoke; swords were used for both purification and exorcism. The robes and hats worn by the priest were covered with images symbolizing power over the cosmos. Scriptures multiplied with each revelation, as these were accompanied with writings, some of which were “discovered” and others of which were “dictated.”
Women play an important role in Daoism: as teachers who influenced its development, as practitioners in its rituals, and as goddesses, the embodiment of feminine (Yin ) energy.
Buddhist belief in reincarnation
leaving society and entering the homeless celibate life of a monk or nun
The basic ideas of Buddhism are expressed in the formula of the Four Noble Truths, and the eight-fold Path.
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